Car axle
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Car Axle and it’s functions

Car Axle

Car Axle

What Is an Axle?

An axle is a rod or shaft that connects a pair of wheels to propel them and retain the position of the wheels to one another. In a car, the engine applies the force to the axle which rotates the wheels and moves the vehicle forward. In other words, axles deliver the driving power from the engine to the wheels

What are the different types of axles?
There are typically three types of axles – the rear, front and stub axle.
1. Rear axle: This axle is responsible for delivering power to the driving wheels. It comes in two halves, known as half shafts, which are connected by the differential. In most cases, rear axles are live, meaning they rotate with the vehicle’s wheels.
2. Front Axle: Located in the front of the vehicle, this axle is responsible for assisting with steering and processing shocks from the uneven surface of the road. They have four main parts, which are the beam, the swivel pin, the track rod, and the stub axle. Front axles must be as sturdy as possible, and that’s why they’re usually made from carbon steel or nickel steel.
3. Stub Axle: Stub axles are attached to the vehicle’s front wheels, with kingpins connecting these axles to the front axle.
Car Axle
Car Axle Functions
Here are some car axle functions that you need to know:
1. Left and right wheel axle rotation difference: The meaning of this function is to distinguish the rotational motion of the axis so that the turning radius of the car becomes shorter and the car does not need to turn further when it needs to turn as a whole.
2. Rotary power successor: The car axle also functions as a successor to the engine’s rotary power to the drive shaft. This component will transmit the rotary power from the engine to the car tires so that the car speed can be controlled to go forward, backwards, or take a turn.
3. Change the direction of rotation: The car axle can function to change the direction of rotation by 90 degrees. Rotational power which was initially straight will be changed 90 degrees so that it can rotate the drive shaft.
4. Increase rotary power: Another function is to increase the torque or torque. The power that comes from the engine will be channeled to the axle of the drive wheels so that the resulting rotary power becomes greater.
Car Axle
Types of Rear Axle
Not all rear axles are the same, as the support and mounting methods determine the type, there are three types of rear axles:
a. Semi-Floating Axle: This rear axle connects the wheel to the flange on the exterior of the axle shaft and holds it securely. One bearing supports the axle shaft, and the other goes inside the axle casing. Since it has two bearings, a semi-floating axle needs to be larger than the other options to produce the same torque. Semi-floating axles are used for cars, SUVs, and mid-size trucks, such as half-ton and light duty pickups.
b. Full-Floating Axle: True to its name, this axle type effectively floats in place and maintains its position, thanks to two bearings. It’s designed to transmit driving torque only. Full-floating axles tend to work best for larger vehicles, such as heavy-duty trucks. Some mid-size trucks that have larger towing capacities or those that use four-wheel drive extensively can also benefit from full-floating axles.
c. Three-Quarter Floating Axle: It’s more complex than the semi-floating axle and also more reliable. It helps maintain wheel alignment and handles side thrust and driving torque.
Car Axle
Types of Front Axle
Vehicles have two main types of front axle. These are:
a. Dead Front Axle: These axles stay in place and don’t rotate with the wheels. Most dead front axles and differentials have housings that prevent them from coming into contact with water or dirt.
b. Live Front Axle: Unlike dead front axles, live front axles deliver driving power from the gearbox to the front wheels.
Car Axle
Types of Stub Axle
There are four types of stub axle:
a. Elliot: This type uses a kingpin, a yoke, and a cotter to connect to the front axle.
b. Reverse Elliot: This type has the opposite arrangement of a standard Elliot stub axle.
c. Lamoine: This stub axle type has an L-shaped spindle instead of a yoke-type hinge.
e. Reverse Lamoine: It has the opposite layout of a standard Lamoine stub axle.
Car Axle
Car Axle Components
To perform its function properly, the car axle has several interconnected components, including:
a. Drive pinion gear
b. Drive pinion shaft
c. Ring gear
d. Spider gear
e. Spider gear shaft
f. Differential carrier
g. Axle shaft bearing
h. Side gear
I. Adjuster nut
j. bearing cap
k. Axle shaft housing
L. Axle shaft oil tube
m. Universal joint flange
n. Gasket
How Car Axle Works
The way the axle works is distinguished by the position of the car when walking or turning.
1. The position of the car turns: When the car turns, the wheels on the inside will receive a rotating resistance of the front wheels that change direction. This position will make the left wheel side gear heavier so that the pinion gear will rotate due to the weight difference. The right side gear will move faster and make the rotation of the two wheels different so that the direction of rotation of the two is opposite.
2. The car goes straight: When the car goes straight, the torque generated by the axle will enter the pinion drive gear. Furthermore, the rotary power will be connected to the ring gear which has more teeth. When the position is straight, the car axle will make the ring gear rpm lower than the pinion gear rpm so that the ring gear rotation will be forwarded to the differential case.
The flow of power from this differential case will move to the pinion shaft and then forwarded back to the pinion gear and side gear. Furthermore, the pinion gear will rotate on the pinion shaft so that the right and left wheels change sides of rotation. However, because the steering wheel is straight, the load on the right and left wheels remains the same.
3. When the car wheels get into the mud: When the car’s wheels get into the mud, the rotational speed of the wheels will be slower. So in order for this component to remain optimal, make sure the condition of the lubricant is always good so that it can regulate the movement of the rotating shaft. The trick is to always check the condition of the axle oil.
Car Axle
Characteristics of Problematic Car Axle
This component works very important in the car’s drive system so that its condition must be ensured to always be optimal. Here are some characteristics of a problematic car axle that you need to recognize:
1. There is a leak at the axle: One of the most easily recognizable characteristics if this component is problematic is the presence of a leak in this component. This condition is usually characterized by the presence of car oil fluid on the axle component. To avoid this risk, you must know the characteristics of the car axle oil that must be replaced so that the vehicle’s performance remains optimal.
2. There is a buzzing sound: A buzzing sound when the car is started can also be a sign of a problematic car axle. To find out, you can drive in a quiet place then open the window and listen to whether you hear a hum from the car engine or not. If it buzzes, it’s possible that the axle function of the car is in trouble.
3. There is a vibration on the axle: Another characteristic of a problematic car axle is the presence of vibrations centered on these component parts. The appearance of this vibration can be caused by many factors. One of the most common is the presence of damage to the cross joint or its connection.
In summary, regular axle inspection is an important part of car maintenance because spotting trouble early on can help you avoid expensive repairs in the future
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